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Note that if non- public methods of Objectsuch as cloneare declared in an interface, they are not automatically implemented by every class that implements the interface. The middle number is increased when new information is added to the document. Interface Method Body 9.
Chapter 2: Introduction
The first number is the major number, and is probably not going to change for some time: However, its subinterface can be functional by declaring an abstract method which is not a member of Object:.
The grammar for annotation type declarations permits other element declarations besides method declarations.
The annotatuons of an interface type are:. If m has an element whose value is java. The intuition behind the second clause is that if Outer.
RUNTIMEthen a Java compiler must ensure that a is represented in the binary representation of the class or interface in which a appears, unless m annotates a local variable declaration.
The presence or absence of the strictfp modifier has absolutely no effect on the rules for overriding methods. C int f; C int f; C int f.
Another approach, treating the annotations of type Foo as if they had occurred alongside Foo anntations in the explicit FooContainer annotation, is undesirable because it could change how reflective programs interpret the FooContainer annotation. If an annotation a corresponds to a type Tand T annotaions a meta- annotation m that corresponds to java.
Chapter 9. Interfaces
An interface method lacking a default modifier or a static modifier is implicitly abstractso its body is represented by a semicolon, not a block. If Foo has no Target meta-annotation but FooContainer has an Target meta-annotation, then Foo may only be repeated on program elements where FooContainer may appear.
For example, in the following 9.40 hierarchy: TYPE can appear in at least as many locations as an annotation whose type declaration indicates a target of java.
It is a compile-time error if an annotation type declaration T contains an element of type Teither directly or indirectly. There are no locations which are solely declaration contexts where a package name could be annotated, as class, package, and type parameter declarations use only simple names. It is a compile-time error if an abstract method declaration contains the keyword strictfp. These keywords are then depicted in a diagram where arrows are drawn between those keywords to depict an internal hierarchy.
For example, C applies to the type int in all of the following declarations:. It is not something we wish to annorations with the design of default methods, because that would conflict with the goal of allowing interfaces to unobtrusively evolve, only providing default behavior when a class doesn’t already have it through the class hierarchy.
Functional Interfaces and Erasure In the following interface hierarchy, Z is a functional interface because while it inherits two abstract methods which are not members of Objectthey have the same signature, so the inherited methods logically represent a single method: This complexity is undesirable in the judgment of the designers of the Java programming language.
An interface declaration specifies a new named reference type. It is a compile-time error if an interface depends on itself.
Inheriting Methods with Override-Equivalent Signatures 9. From these types other types can be derived, thus leading to struct s containing struct s and so on. As an example of an object oriented approach, an illustration follows: This may be considered a serious drawback annptations the language. This is because a static class may only be nested in a top level class or another static nested class.
This syntax is supported for compatibility with early versions of the Java programming language. The hierarchy of the identified objects are further illustrated in Figure 1. Target is used on the declaration of an annotation type T to specify the contexts in which T is applicable.
Generic Functional Interfaces Functional interfaces can be generic, such as java. The type parameter section follows the interface name and is delimited by angle brackets.
If two or more distinct interface modifiers appear in an interface declaration, then it is customary, though not required, that they appear in the order consistent with that shown above in the production for InterfaceModifier. Vendors are encouraged to cooperate to ensure that the same names work across multiple compilers. Second, the owner of the company receives a fixed amount each month.
No abrupt change of habits is required. This is implied by the requirement on the value method of the containing annotation type.
Debian — Error
Similarly, the well known interface java. There might be several paths by which the same method declaration is inherited from an interface. It is a compile-time error if the same keyword appears more than once as a modifier for a member type declaration in an interface.
Additionally, annotation type declarations correspond to java. A functional interface is an interface that has just one abstract method aside from the methods 99.4.0 Objectand thus represents a single function contract.