malónico malonic acid diethylester’ dietílico de acido malónico malonic dirritrile acid ácido dinitril malónico malonic ester ester malónico malonic ester. (adj) – stoichiometric éster (m)–ester éster (m)acético – aceticester éster sodium malonic ester éster (m) malónico sódico–sodium malonicester éster. SÍNTESIS DE GABRIEL- ÉSTER MALÓNICO. BIOMOLÉCULAS. ALMANZA ACEVEDO JESSICA AMBRÍZ ALVÁREZ STEPHANIE MONTSERRAT VÁZQUEZ .
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The ionized form of malonic acid, as well as its esters and saltsare known as malonates. For example, diethyl malonate is malonic acid’s diethyl ester. Malonic acid is often mistakenly believed to occur in beetroot at high concentration. However, a study on the composition of sugar beet liquors revealed no malonic acid. Malonic acid is the classic example of a competitive inhibitor: It acts against succinate dehydrogenase  complex II in the respiratory electron transport chain.
A classical preparation of malonic acid starts from chloroacetic acid: Sodium carbonate generates the sodium saltwhich is then reacted with sodium cyanide to provide the cyano acetic acid salt via a nucleophilic substitution. The nitrile group can be hydrolyzed maoonico sodium hydroxide to sodium malonate, and acidification affords malonic acid.
Industrially, however, malonic acid is produced by hydrolysis of dimethyl malonate or diethyl malonate. Malonic acid was first prepared in by the French malonioc Victor Dessaignes via the oxidation of malic acid.
Malonic acid has been produced through fermentation of glucose. In a well-known reaction, malonic acid condenses with urea to form barbituric acid.
Malonic acid is also frequently used as an enolate in Knoevenagel condensations or condensed with acetone to malonic Meldrum’s acid. Additionally, the coenzyme A derivative of malonate, malonyl-CoAis an important precursor in fatty acid biosynthesis along with acetyl CoA.
Картинки: Ácido malónico
Malonyl CoA is formed from acetyl CoA by the action of acetyl-CoA carboxylaseand the malonate is transferred to an acyl carrier protein to be added to a fatty acid chain. Malonic acid is also known to be a competitive inhibitor of succinic dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the dehydrogenation of succinate within Krebs mslonico.
Malonic acid is a naturally occurring substance found in some fruits.
In citrus, fruits produced in organic farming contain higher levels of malonic acid than fruits produced in conventional agriculture. Malonic acid is a precursor to specialty polyesters. It can also be a component in alkyd resinswhich are used in a number of coatings applications for protecting against damage caused by UV light, oxidation, and corrosion.
One application of malonic acid is in the coatings industry as a crosslinker for low-temperature cure powder coatings, which are becoming increasingly valuable for heat sensitive substrates and a desire to speed up the coatings process. It is used in a number of manufacturing processes as a high value specialty chemical including the electronics industry, flavors and fragrances industry, specialty solvents, polymer crosslinking, and pharmaceutical industry. Inannual global production of malonic acid and related diesters was over 20, metric tons.
File:Acetoacetic ester – Wikimedia Commons
Malonic acid was listed as one of the top 30 chemicals to be produced from biomass by the US Department of Energy. In food and drug applications, malonic acid can be used to control acidity, either seter an excipient in pharmaceutical formulation or natural preservative additive for foods. Malonic acid is used as a building block chemical to produce numerous valuable compounds,  including the flavor and fragrance compounds gamma-nonalactone, cinnamic acidand the pharmaceutical compound valproate.
Malonic acid up to Eastman Kodak company and others use malonic acid and derivatives as a surgical adhesive.
Malonic ester synthesis
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with malic acid or maleic acid. Malonic acid Methanedicarboxylic acid. Interactive image Interactive image.
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.
Journal of Biological Chemistry Retrieved 5 June Dessaignes “Note sur un acide obtenu par l’oxydation de l’acide makonico Note on an acid obtained by oxidation of malic acidComptes rendus Heats of combustion of solid organic acids. Data,9, Heats of combustion of successive terms of homologous series: Acta, Global Automotive Coatings Market. Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass. Crosslinked native and waxy starch resin compositions and processes for their manufacture.
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